Adverse childhood experiences: A public health challenge

Access Full Text INTRODUCTION The life-course approach to health and the critical period model of disease causation posit that adult health is shaped by experiences in early life, specifically during critical developmental periods.1 Adverse Childhood…



Biohacking: The next scientific revolution?

The biohacking movement was catapulted into mainstream attention when AIDS patient Tristan Roberts livestreamed a self-injection with an untested gene therapy vector.1 Biohacking, also known as Do-It-Yourself Biology, is the technological manipulation of biological systems…



AMPK regulates extravillous trophoblast invasion

The placenta is involved in the transport and exchange of gases, nutrients, and waste products at the mother-fetus interface. During the early stages of pregnancy, trophoblasts, the primary stem cell lineage in the placenta, play…


Congenital insensitivity to pain

Introduction Pain is an essential sensation that has developed in complex organisms as an evolutionary mechanism to signal impending danger. Without pain, day-to-day functions become incredibly compromised. Pain is responsible for triggering the adoption of…


Diabetes — Blood, sweat, and tears

Diabetes mellitus (DM), a metabolic disorder characterized by irregular insulin production or insulin resistance, affects over 350 million people worldwide.1 Diabetic individuals must monitor their blood glucose levels several times a day, using a process…


Unearthing new antibiotics

Internationally, more than 700,000 people die from antimicrobial-resistant bacterial diseases each year.1 With superbugs developing resistance to even the antibiotic of last resort, vancomycin, scientists are racing to expand options. Currently, research is investigating the…